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Vial of Blood, and Highlighted Blood Components : This image highlights the vital components of blood: 55% plasma, 1% platelets and white blood cells, and 45% red blood cells. Plasma is the liquid river that transports every blood cell to its destination. Oxygen-carrying RBCs couldn't move through arteries, veins and capillaries without it. Even though it is a watery, almost clear fluid, plasma contains many important substances, including blood-clotting agents called platelets and protective proteins called antibodies which help us fight infection.
When the clotting agents are removed from blood plasma, it is called serum, which is essential in many life-saving medical situations such as transplant surgery and trauma. Some leukocytes ( WBC or white blood cells ) are produced in the bone marrow, while others are generated in lymph nodes scattered throughout the body. They are far less numerous than their sister RBCs, but leukocytes are the bedrock of the immune system and are the body's front line of defense. Different types of leukocytes fight infections in different ways.
Some target bacterial or fungal infections, while others respond to parasitic threats or allergic eactions. Platelets perform the vital function of clotting blood at wound sites. They are small, even in comparison to the other cells of your blood, but they pack a wallop when it comes to healing a scrape or staunching a more serious wound. When you cut yourself shaving, platelets arrive on the scene like your personal emergency medical team, creating a natural bandage of clotted blood, which eventually forms a scab. 45% red blood cells rbcs or erythrocytes) RBCs are produced in the bone marrow and perform the fundamental task of delivering oxygen to all of the body's cells. The vial is an example of the hematocrit, one of many tests that make up the complete blood count (CBC). Hematocrit measures the volume of RBCs in your blood. A normal hematocrit reading for women is between 36 to 44 percent; for men it's 41 to 50 percent.
Vial of Blood, and Highlighted Blood Components : This image highlights the vital components of blood: 55% plasma, 1% platelets and white blood cells, and 45% red blood cells.
Dr. Mehmet Oz and other top experts talk about why obesity is so strongly linked to the four major causes of death in the US—heart disease, cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Discover the many disorders associated with obesity: infertility, back pain, Alzheimer's disease, sleep apnea, and more. Find out what your BMI is and why it matters. You'll see why our bodies aren't suited to our modern way of life. Learn how we respond to the wrong cues when we eat and ignore our natural, internal cues. Journey inside your blood vessels and see, on a microscopic level, exactly what happens when you overeat. Witness how fat cells transform from tiny individual cells into a massive tissue. How do we change the tide? Dieting is not the answer! You'll find out how to make little changes in your life that add up to big ones.
We all know Obesity can cause heart disease but that's just heart of the story. Excess fat demands extra blood, 75% of hypertension cases are caused by obesity. It is the leading cause of diabetes, 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese people are 3-4 times more likely to develop chronic kidney disease and 15% of all chronic kidney disease is caused by obesity. Obesity can lead to infertility and double your chances for miscarriage; also obese women are more likely to die giving birth. Obese men have a 30% higher chance of impotence while 8 out of 10 men with erectile dysfunction are overweight. Being only 10 pounds overweight increases the force on your knee by 40-60 pound with each step. Obese men double their chances of having a stroke and also increases your chances of arthritis, asthma, gourd, sleep apnea, gall stones, back disorders, breast cancers, cancer of the esophagus, colorectal cancer, kidney cancer, eye damage, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease.
According to a new report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development released on September 23, 2010, Estimates from the survey by OECD reveal that people of the world's richest countries are getting fatter and fatter with the U.S. leading the change. According to the OECD report, two-thirds of the people in U.S. are overweight and about a third of the adults are obese which is defined as being nearly 30 pounds above normal weight.
In the last 25 years, Obesity in America has doubled to a third of America. That's about 60 million people that are obese. About 15% of our children are obese and the number is steadily growing.
Each year obesity causes at least 300,000 deaths in the US alone; Americans spend well over 100 billion dollars every year on obesity related healthcare. There are a lot of people who are having heart attacks despite all the efforts made to educate people about the ravages of obesity.
We know we eat too much junk and we just eat too much and we don't exercise like we should, but what exactly going on inside our bodies that makes us fat.
With real human data, cutting edge medical information and state of the art technology, we now have a whole new insight to obesity and the toll that takes on our bodies, from our expanding waist line right down to the cellular level.
Shortly after eating the circulatory system is already delivering vital nutrients and energy to the cells of our bodies, these nutrients are so small you would have to be the size of a red blood cell in order to see them. When our cells have more energy than they need our bodies store these nutrients, while immature fat cells begin absorbing this biological energy and transform it into a mature fat cells. The longer our body is supplied with access to nutrients the larger these cells become. As more and more are transformed, what was once just a tiny cell is now a massive tissue not only altering physical appearance but our physiological health.
Obesity is an epidemic that's not just a matter of how good we look in the mirror but truly a matter of life and death.
Your Doctor's Visit
A physical exam helps a doctor take the measure of your health. Current concerns are addressed and unrecognized problems may be spotted. But the exam also establishes a baseline vital to your future. Being poked, prodded and undressed, having our pulse and blood pressure taken, our heart and lungs listened to, our chest and back thumped, our height and weight measured, our ears, mouths, and eyes peered at. Yes, those are all routine procedures in a physical and they are routine for good reasons. In the course of a physical exam doctors can uncover a wealth of information on the function of our major organ systems. Establishing this health baseline is the first step in making a commitment to wellness as a lifelong journey.
This video clip explains what anemia is. The video starts off with revealing erythropoietin, a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. This process is known as erythropoiesis. Erythropoietin is produced in the kidneys and promotes red blood cell formation in the bone marrow. As shown in the video, when the level of healthy red blood cells (RBCs) in the body becomes too low, anemia occurs. Anemia is one of the most common blood disorders that can cause a variety of complications, including fatigue and stress on bodily organs.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection : Our kidneys are remarkable filters. Each day, they filter about 200 quarts of blood to extract about 2 quarts of wastes, which is then eliminated as urine (2 ureters connect the kidneys to the bladder, which stores urine, until it is passed through the urethra). Urine does not normally contain bacteria, but infections can occur, particularly if there are obstructions of the urethra; according to the American Urological Association foundation, urinary tract infections result in more than 7 million visits to doctor's offices each year (about 5% of all visits to primary care physicians).
Blood Vessel of Lower Extremity : Your arteries are made up of three layers of cells: the tunica intima, the tunica media, and the tunica adventitia. The tunica intima is actually a single layer of endothelial cells. These cells are used as lining in many parts of your body. They provide a smooth surface for the blood to flow on. In addition, the endothelial layer is a functioning system that secretes different products and responds to different stimuli from the blood vessels and tissues. The tunica media or middle layer of the artery contains the muscle cells and other structural and elastic fibers that contract and dilate the artery. One of the signs of arterial aging is a loss of the pliability of the muscle cells in the tunica media and a loss of ability to distend. The tunica adventitia, the outer layer, contains the artery's support system - tiny blood vessels that feed the artery and nerves that respond to signals and control the artery's contraction and dilation. Like arteries, veins are also made of three layers. However, veins do not contract like arteries. Veins in the lower part of your body have one-way valves to counteract the effects of gravity and prevent blood from flowing back into the feet. Veins in the upper part of the body have no valves because gravity itself brings the blood back "down" to the heart. Unfortunately, valves can be damaged and weakened over time. Varicose veins are caused by leaky valves that allow blood to pool and bulge in the veins of the legs. Unlike arteries and veins, capillaries are made of a single layer of endothelial cells. Scattered throughout the capillary is a second type of cell called pericytes. These are smooth muscle-like cells that provide the capillary with the ability to contract. They also help feed the capillaries and control the exchange of nutrients and wastes.
Pancreatic Beta Cell : SEM generated image of Beta cells. Beta cells are a type of cells found in the pancreas. They produce a hormone called insulin which is responsible for controlling the levels of glucose in the body.
Fluid Regulation : The body's fluid balance is kept within a narrow range by the kidneys, which constantly monitor and adjust blood levels of electrolytes (sodium, calcium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride) as well as blood proteins such as albumin. If the body is unable to self-regulate, however, treatment may involve dietary changes (lower salt intake or increased fluid intake, for example), diuretics or treatment of the underlying disease causing the fluid imbalance.