Human Brain _ Revealing Brain Internal Structure

Image Caption : Human Head Revealing Brain Internal Structure : 3D visualization reconstructed from scanned human data of a sectioned brain. The brain is sectioned to revealing the outer and inner structures. Regions of the outer brain, the cerebrum and cerebellum are depicted. The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, presents a complexly convoluted surface characterized by sulci (grooves) and gyri (fissures) which outline specific functional areas. The wrinkled cerebellum, below the cerebrum, facilitates smooth, precise movements and controls balance and posture. The inner brain structures include: the thalamus, which acts as the brain's information relay station; the limbic system, involved in stress reactions; the hypothalamus, which controls the automatic processes of the body; and the brain stem, which acts to regulate essential functions of the body including blood pressure, heartbeat, digestion and respiration.



The cerebrum is the part of the brain that receives and processes conscious sensation, generates thought, and controls conscious activity. It is the uppermost and largest part of the brain and is divided into left and right hemispheres, which are joined by and communicated through the corpus callosum.

Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into five lobes, four of which have the same name as the bone over them: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. A fifth lobe, the insula or Island of Reil, lies deep within the lateralsulcus.

Illustration of the lobes of the cerebrum


The Cerebellum is a cauliflower-shaped section of the brain located in the hindbrain, at the bottom rear of the head, directly behind the pons. The cerebellum is a complex system mostly dedicated to the intricate coordination of voluntary movement, including walking and balance. Damage to the cerebellum leaves the sufferer with a gait that appears drunken and is difficult to control.


A series of interconnected, fluid-filled cavities called ventricles lie within the brain. The fluid is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which also circulates over the outside of the brain and spinal cord.


The brain stem is the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus.


The tentorium is a fold of the dura mater, which separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum, and often encloses a process or plate of the skull called the bony tentorium.

National Cancer Institute / NIH

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